The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/8/prepub. volume 13, Article number: 8 (2013) It raises awareness that unless public health efforts are taken broadly and comprehensively, tobacco will remain a primary contributor to premature morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. The authors declared that they have no competing interest. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). There are 23 places where smoking is prohibited. 2008, National Poison Centre, University Sains Malaysia, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/PDF/Outputs/RITC/Malaysia_retailmarketing-Final_technical_report.pdf. Malaysia smoking rate for 2016 was 21.50%, a 0.3% decline from 2015. 1994, 309: 937-939. More than half of the Malays and other indigenous ethnic groups were current smokers. We then analysed the smoking data on 15,639 male respondents. Ind Health. In 2004, the Ministry of Health launched a five-year national anti-smoking campaign with the slogan ‘Tak Nak’ (Say No) that reached more than 92% of the population. Divorced (1.67, 95% CI 1.22–2.28) and residing in rural areas (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.22) were also associated with a higher likelihood of smoking. The finding that older Malaysian males smoke less than middle-aged and younger males is also a cause for concern for the two younger cohorts, as population trends show that there will likely be a rise in their numbers in the future, and therefore a greater burden on the country from smoking unless these trends are reversed. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. The study sample was selected using a two-stage, proportional population size stratified sampling design and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2004 sampling frame from the Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Lancet. This is consistent with the mean age of smoking onset in Kuwait (18 years) [29] and Thailand (18.3 years) [23] yet is higher than India (17.8 years) [26]. National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. 65 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[47 38]/Info 46 0 R/Length 91/Prev 276279/Root 48 0 R/Size 85/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011), Syed Abdul Razak SM: Perubahan struktur umur penduduk: Impak dan cabaran pembangunan negara. 2008, 17: 53-59. in 2008 [47], and Aekplakorn et al. Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD, Thun M, Health C: Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. To reduce the consumption of tobacco product among Malaysians, the Malaysian government has instituted many anti-smoking measures. The average number of cigarettes smoked by the study respondents was 12.3 cigarettes per day, slightly less than 13.3 cigarettes per day in 1996 (p < 0.01) [16]. 2006, 15: 247-253. (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011). 10.1136/tc.2005.015347. We would like to thank the Director-General of Health Malaysia for his permission to publish this paper. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The number of households selected was based on 4.4 expected respondents per LQ. Aekplakorn W, Hogan MC, Tiptaradol S, Wibulpolprasert S, Punyaratabandhu P, Lim SS: Tobacco and hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Thailand: Joint prevalence and associations with socioeconomic factors. 2010, 94: 101-110. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Joossens L, Raw M: The tobacco control scale: a new scale to measure country activity. Among males aged 18 years and older, almost half were current smokers (49.2%). These variations may be due to differences in the tobacco control programs and legislation implemented in these countries [28]. Prev Med. PubMed Google Scholar. [48] who reported smoking was not related to marital status among adult persons residing in urban areas of China. Soc Sci Med. Imposing higher taxes on tobacco products may be an effective strategy to boost smoking cessation. 10.1016/j.puhe.2007.12.013. It is also possible that the healthier non smokers are more likely to get and stay married than those who are divorced as posited by the marriage selection theory. Tob Control. Tob Control. The present study found that 60% of Malaysian male smokers started smoking by the age of 18, which is higher than those reported in China (52.7%) [26], but lower than in the USA (80%) [33] and Canada (82.6%) [34]. Research Network for Tobacco Control. 2000, 78: 1306-1315. Fifty percent of smokers die of a smoking-related disease, and the life expectancy of one in four smokers is reduced by as much as 15-20 years . Table 2 shows the distribution of the age of smoking onset and number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers. (Accessed on 6 February 2012), b. Viet Nam’s Country Reports, Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India Report. A study on the burden of disease in 2003 estimated that one-fifth of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and one-third of years of life lost (YLL) for Malaysians were due to smoking-related diseases [7]. Br Med J. An estimated 3,500 out of 10,000 deaths are related to smoking in Malaysia each year. 10.1016/0140-6736(92)91600-D. CAS  Proposal Development Section, Institute of Public Health, Jalan Bangsar, 50590, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Hock Kuang Lim, Kuay Kuang Lim, Ying Ying Chan, Huey Chien Teh & Gurpreet Kaur, Epidemiology and Biostatistic unit, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Cheong Chee Kee & Ahmad Faudzi Mohd Yusoff, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, 62590, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Pharmacy Practice Department, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, Health Division, Kuala Lumpur City Hall, Jalan Raja Laut, 50350, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in Starting tomorrow (yes, 1st January 2019), smokers are banned from smoking at restaurants and food premises.Under the law, smokers can only smoke 3 metres away from eateries. CAS  Public Health. AT first glance, and in the name of “promoting good health and protecting non-smokers from secondary smoke”, the ban on smoking is a logical and healthy move. As a first step to successfully attain tobacco control goals, the government should pass the draft Tobacco Control Act immediately. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.10.005. 10.1136/tc.5.3.215. This is a cross-sectional school survey conducted on 4500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Public health policies and action need to focus on high risk sub-populations identified through this survey, principally younger, rural, Malay males from a lower income group, and with less formal education. During the first six (6) months of 2019, enforcement involves verbal or written warnings. However in Malaysia, the CTPR’04 have limited areas where smoking is prohibited. CAS  Other studies by Huisman et al. A total of 7,113 out of 15,639 respondents interviewed were current smokers (46.4%, 95%, CI 45.5–47.4). Intensified efforts directed at encouraging smokers to quit smoking are therefore encouraged by these trends and findings. This study has several limitations; principal among them is its cross-sectional design which limits study findings to the reporting of associations between current smoking status and exposure. Report http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Regional_Tobacco_Surveillance_System_GATS_Thailand_2009.pdf. 1996, 5: 215-219. The higher the level of an individual’s education and income, the less likely that individual is to be a current smoker. 2004, http://www.jknj.moh.gov.my/…/FP_1_. Cigarette prices in the country have risen as an effect of high tobacco taxes [11]. 2009, Available at http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Documents/CTCPUpdate2009.pdf, . It is likely that individuals with low education, low level occupation, and low income have less access to adequate health care information and face financial difficulties that increase their stress levels, making them more susceptible to partake in unhealthy lifestyle or health risks such as smoking. 2012, Pamplemousses: Mauritius Institute of Health. Only 5.6% of smokers smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day with 55.7% of male smokers smoking less than 11 cigarettes per day (Table 2). Helasoja V, Prattala R, Klumbiene J, Petkeviciene J, Kasmel A, Lipand A, Uutela A, Puska P: Smoking and passive smoking in Estonia, Lithuania and Finland. The regulation will be fully enforced effective 1 … California Tobacco Control Program Web site. PubMed  Besides the legal tobacco trade, illicit cigarette trade has also proliferated, accounting for approximately one fifth of the tobacco market in Malaysia [11]. The difference in the prevalence across countries might be due to disparities in the socio-economics 24, culture 25, tobacco legislation 26 and taxation between countries 24. Ferketich AK, Gallus S, Iacobelli N, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, La Vecchia C: Smoking in Italy 2007, with a focus on the young. Li W, Hsia J, Yang GH: Prevalence of smoking in China in 2010. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. However, local and foreign tobacco industries circumvent such control efforts through trademark diversification. In addition, in this paper we discuss the effectiveness of current tobacco control measures in light of these findings. h޴XmS�8�+�x7n�ny��(�5-%P�e�`A|u��v(���]�1����F��Z���yv���31��� �o1N�{� �t�"Ʉ™H���X����f�a�G�n�T�#&��,rL:��L ���L)n�LY3'�r�1�Hs%�˗0��}v��\�k�'�qb?�4�����`P���%�oo�A��8�kN��9\2-2I}6��/������˅�v�����Ź���s����Q��~���ݤ�]@0L���,ɗ���ʗ>��C5O�&E�%%�}9�y �{U�O�뢨}�^Ok�'�(�Wm�L*��������~�O}N~�bU�TS�����C���zZzWŢ����C��B�op��� �EV�8. Several possible explanations for this finding are, urban residents are more often exposed to anti-smoking campaigns and measures, and the co-existence of other known risk factors for smoking, namely lower income and education levels, among those living in rural areas. Before each interview started, the interviewer read out the consent form in order to obtain written consent. And although all states in Malaysia will enforce the smoking ban at all eateries tomorrow, it was reported that Sarawak won’t be enforcing this just yet. Smoking was higher among the Malays (55.9%, 95% CI 54.8–57.1) and people of other indigenous ethnic groups (53.8%, 95% CI 51.2–56.3) than the Chinese (36.0%, 95% CI 34.1–37.9) and Indians (35.0%. 2011, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/mys.pdf, country profile; Malaysia, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia: Smoking. Enumeration Blocks (EBs) are artificially created and geographically contiguous areas consisting of 80–120 households and constitute the primary sampling units for the study. Potential factors contributing to the association between ethnicity and smoking status are many and deserve further investigation, especially as adjustment for age, socio-economic status and other factors did not remove the effect of ethnicity on smoking status. However, the prevalence of smoking was higher than India (24.3%) [25], but lower than China (66.9%) [26] and the Philippines (53.8%) [27]. Caraballo RS, Giovino GA, Pechacek TF, Mowery PD: Factors associated with discrepancies between self-reports on cigarette smoking and measured serum cotinine levels among persons aged 17 years and older: Third national healthand nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994. (Accessed on 6 February 2012), Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. This article discusses why smoking is bad for health and reasons to quit. Correspondence to About 20% teenagers smoke. Yu Z, Nissinen A, Wartiainen E, Song G, Guo Z, Zheng G, Tuomilehto J, Tian H: Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China. et al. Data was collected using the supervised self administered questionnaire the Youth Risk Behaviour … 2006, New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 113-121. (Accessed on 8 August 2012), Fact sheet, California Department of Public Health: California Tobacco Control Update. Selling of cigarettes to persons under the age of 18 has been forbidden since May 14, 1994. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.02.010. Cho HJ, Khang YH, Jun HJ, Kawachi I: Marital status and smoking in Korea: the influence of gender and age. (2006) [18] and the Malaysia NCD Surveillance-1 in 2006 [19], which found smoking rates of 47.2% and 46.5%, respectively. Google ScholarÂ. Article 8 of FCTC dictates the signatory countries consider total smoking prohibition in all enclosed areas and public places. (Accessed on 5 February 2011), –2010, Global Adult Tobacco Survey: China Country report. h�b```� ����cb���>�7�����pl����h�����m%SR@j����r���r���^�h;�CI�� ��c>%L�@�m��\�v��8:8�dCCG�� �400J 9@6�H��i3�FI�G@Z �E@N`�b�e��i��Xo�Ŏ6_��g�ީ���_f��à�� x�#Y��`܆�[���T "�p � ��H smoking and smoking among girls and young women Malaysia should prioritise implementation of tobacco control measures in line with recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Google ScholarÂ. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). NHMS III was a nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based survey. PLoS Med. 2008, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Publish Health. Tobacco smoking is a growing pandemic and in Malaysia, with the current smoking epidemic; the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia is high and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in … Moreover, the interview technique employed was standardized and made use of a personalized approach to ensure a high response rate (96.7%) and greater willingness to report on socio-economic status and education level, both key factors for examining the relationship between social class and smoking in the adult male population in Malaysia. Yang GH, Fan LX, Tan J, Qi GM, Zhang YF, Sarnet JM, Taylor CE, Becker K, Xu J: Smoking in China- Finding of the 1996 National Prevalence Survey. In this paper, we analyzed data from NHMS III in 2006 to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with tobacco use among Malaysian men ten years after the previous survey. The higher proportion of smoking among school going adolescents in Malaysia might due to the measure/s implemented to address the problem of smoking among adolescent in Malaysia are not as comprehensive and throughout as compared to those countries, On the other hand, the smoking ratio of 10:1 among male and female Malaysian adolescents was comparable with those reported in … This finding is consistent with findings from the NHMS II [16] and with findings from a population-based study in China, Thailand and Korea [36, 38, 39], yet runs contrary to reports from the western countries [40, 41]. The study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. 47 0 obj <> endobj For example, advertising a tobacco brand on a non-tobacco product or selling non-tobacco products carrying tobacco brand names [12]. Compared to neighboring countries, this average number of cigarettes is more than the 11.3 cigarettes per day reported by the Philippines [27] yet lower than 13.5 and 14.3 cigarettes per day reported in Vietnam [24] and China [36], respectively. 2001, 153: 807-814. Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Horton R, Adams C, Alleyne G, Asaria P, et al: Priority actions for the non communicable disease crisis. 2003, http://www.google.com.my/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.moh.gov.my%2Fattachments%2F3996&ei=-zTtUOruLInVkwWklIC4DA&usg=AFQjCNE__D1pUqD9Z8CmrcU53TX7DvqEWQ&sig2=6jWFxsk8yAIhtHlqcCHjmA. Article  Family with low socioeconomic status is an example of socio-demographic factor. Assunta M, Chapman S: The tobacco industry’s accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia. 1992, 339: 1268-1278. There were no significant differences in smoking prevalence between married and single males, and this is corroborated by Yu et al. BMC Public Health 13, 8 (2013). Moreover, the country has spent as much as 2.92 billion Malaysian ringgit treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease and lung cancer [8]. %%EOF Other Asian countries which reported comparable smoking prevalence in adult males are Thailand (45.6%) [23] and Vietnam (50%) [24]. Similar proportions have been observed in the previous NHMS surveys [16]. Control of Tobacco Products Regulation 2004. Edited by: Varma AK. 2004, 13 (2): 63-70. Yes, it’s a long list of places - they come under … To ensure a high response rate, unoccupied households were revisited up to three times. Addict Behav. Respondents without formal education were more likely to smoke than those with tertiary education (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.09; 95% CI 1.67–2.60); and those who worked in skilled agriculture and fisheries sector were 2.00 (95% CI 1.66– 2.42) times more likely to smoke than senior officers. PubMed  There are more young people who smoke … World Bank: Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control. PubMed  Divorced men were found to smoke more than single, married or widowed men. Further investigations are certainly needed to elucidate the reasons for the decreased mean age of smoking onset in Malaysia while developed countries are show the opposite trend [32]. 1999, 8: 53-56. Data were weighted in the analysis to account for the complex study design and response rate. Tob Control. The tobacco industry in Malaysia is estimated to be worth more than USD 2 billion a year with three major multinational companies dominating the industry [10, 11]. 2009, http://whoindia.org/en/Section20/Section25_1861.htm. statement and in 2008 [38]. PubMed Central  Tob Control. 10.1136/tc.2007.022319. Nevertheless, the smoking prevalence in Malaysia was still high when compared to developed countries such as Singapore (16%) 22 and Australia (12.8%) 23. Among the Malaysians, 71% were Malays. Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB: Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City. Park EJ, Koh HK, Kwon JW, Suh MK, Kim H, Cho SI: Secular trends in adult male smoking from 1992 to 2006 in south Korea: Age-specific changes with evolving tobacco-control policies. This could result in underestimating the actual prevalence of smoking amongst Malaysian males, but self-reported data on cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use has been found to be valid in other surveys [60]. Memon A, Moody PM, Sugathan TN, El-Gerges N, Al-Bustan M, Al-Shatti A, Al-Jazzaf H: Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics and attitudes. 2008, 33: 503-514. We report 95% confidence intervals without P values as the large sample size could generate significant results even if statistical differences or associations were small. (Accessed on 15 August 2012), Norsiah Ali, Smoking Cessation: Bringing aspiration into reality. Huisman M, Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP: Inequalities in the prevalence of smoking in the European union: comparing education and income. 2003, 117: 228-236. 2005, Malaysia: Institute for Public Health, National Institute of Health, Available from URL: http://www.globalforumhealth.org/filesupld/forum9/CD%20Forum%209/papers/Yusoff%20F.pdf. Smoking bans in public places started to be implemented in the 1980s. Approximately 3% of youth between the ages of 13 and 17 were … Peto R: Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40. As Article 14 of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control is implemented worldwide, it will be helpful to those designing stop smoking services to plan for the kinds of clients they can expect and this depends on how far findings in one country can generalise to other countries. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Smith DR: Tobacco smoking by occupation in Australia and the united states- a review of national surveys conducted between 1970 and 2005. [UPDATE 31/12/18] And that’s not all. Am J Epidemiol. Living quarters (LQs) represent secondary sampling units. http://www.who.int/fctc/Malaysia_5y_report.pdf. In our analysis, ex-smokers, ever smokers and never smokers were combined and constituted the non-smokers category. Tobacco output has increased from 1.82 million kilograms in 1970 to a peak of 9.4 million kilograms in 1982, worth $38 million. Treatment of Tobacco smoking and dependence 2002. Woobaidullah ASM (2011) Kajian sosio-ekonomi penanam tembakau di Malaysia. Italian J Public Health. 2008, 45: 72-89. A majority of the smokers were between 21–40 years of age. 10.1136/tc.8.1.53. �^"^��{ "Hp��@�$8y�����$����L� #Չ��[� ��5 A majority began to smoke before the age of 25 (90.1%), 19.7% (95% CI 18.8–20.6) between 13–15 year-old and 33.8% (95% CI 32.7–34.9) between 16–18 year-old. Part of 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.09.007. The decrease in the average number of cigarettes smoked may reflect an actual decrease in the demand amongst Malaysian men or an increase in the price of tobacco products in the country over the past five years. (2008) [38], Cho et al. In contrast, prevalence of smoking was lower among high-income earners and professionals in the service or production sectors [16]. The prevalence of current smoking among adult males in 2006, in Malaysia is 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3.0% lower than a decade ago.18The prevalence of current smoking among both male and female Malaysian adults aged 15 years and above is 23.1%,19,20and is highest in those aged 21-30 years old.21There has been several series on nationwide surveys in Malaysia, starting … Respondents were 2002 youths between the ages of 13 and 17 from Thailand (n = 1000) and Malaysia (n = 1002). A total of 2,150 EBs (1425 urban and 726 rural) and 17,251 LQs were randomly selected. Health Place. PubMed Central  Now, it is estimated that over 85 percent … Cigarette were the main tobacco product used by Malaysian adult male smokers (92.7%, 95% CI 91.8–93.5) followed by clove cigarettes (44.6%, 95% CI 43.0–46.1) and hand-rolled cigarettes (38.1, 95% CI 36.4–39.9), less than 10% of smokers used bidis, pipe and shisha (Table 3). Since the introduction of the Control of Tobacco Products Regulation in 1993, the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in gazetted areas has reportedly declined while prohibition of smoking in Malaysian homes has increased from 7% in 2005 to 40.3% in 2009, with nearly half of all smokers designating their homes as non-smoking areas. Following are the places where smoking is prohibited under Regulation 11(1) of CTPR’04: Google ScholarÂ, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health: Clinical Practice Guidelines. Saudi Arabia. 10.1001/jama.282.13.1247. However the sales of hand-rolled cigarettes also need to be regulated considering that a significantly high proportion of smokers also use them. This pattern is similar to other countries. Rampal GRL, Choo BH, Azhar MZ, Sanjay R, Sirajoon NAG, Shafie O, Ramlee R, Jesree A: Population based national study on the Prevalence of smoking among Malaysians aged 15 years and above. Introduction: As Stop Smoking Clinics (SSCs) become more common across the globe, it is important to know how far one can make broad generalisations concerning characteristics of smokers who attend these clinics and factors that predict their California Privacy Statement, In Malaysia, smoking-related diseases have been the primary cause of mortality for the past three decades [6]. All authors contributed to developing the manuscript, and read and approved the final version. in 2000 [51, 52] reported higher income level as a protective factor for smoking while Aekplakorn et al. http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/pdf/2010-09-vitalsigns.pdf. Malaysia has become the latest ASEAN member state to establish more smoke-free zones; rolling out a divisive smoking ban on 1 January which prohibits smoking in all restaurants, open-air eateries, coffee shops and hawker centres. Tumori. In the present study, the mean age of smoking onset (18.3 year old) was lower than reported by the NHMS II in 1996 (19.5 year old) (p <0.01) [16]. Schoenbom C: Marital status and health: United States, 1999– 2002, advance data from vital and health statistics. Examining the sociodemographic characteristics of adolescent smoking is the key step toward its prevention. These measures, as well as changes in the country’s socioeconomic landscape are likely to have changed the smoking pattern of Malaysians over the past decade. Google ScholarÂ. 2011, 364: 2469-2470. Effective today, customers caught smoking in eateries can be fined a maximum of RM10,000 or jailed up to two years, while restaurant operators who fail to put up no-smoking … 95% CI 32.0–38.0) (Table 1). 2012, Putrajaya, Malaysia: University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia; and Ministry of Health. 2010, http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/resources.ashx/TFI/2009GATSCountryReport_FinalPhilippines.pdf. Health Policy. Data collection proceeded for four months from April to the end of July, 2006. Tobacco Counters Health Vol 4. Article  (Accessed on 15 August 2011), Disease Control Division, Ministry of health Malaysia: Phase 2 (Group 2 Questions) of the Reporting Instrument under the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The observed decrease, though statistically significant, is very modest compared to other countries that have reduced smoking prevalence by 9% to 25% over 10–20 years after implementing anti-tobacco measures [21, 22]. The 2,426 followed-up smokers (Malaysia, n = 868 and Thailand, n = 1,558) were predominantly male (more than 90% in both countries, reflecting the large gender gap in smoking rates). Google ScholarÂ. Five million smokers in Malaysia, survey shows By Hashini Kavishtri Kannan - June 3, 2016 @ 4:36am (FILE) An estimated five million Malaysians, or 22.8 per cent of the population, are smokers, according to the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS). Article  http://fasa.umk.edu.my/bm/MS/2010/kajian-sosio-ekonomi-penanam-tembakau-di-malaysia/. Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Reading the warning labels closely often or very often increased from 54.4 to 68.3% and giving up a cigarette at least once due to the reading the label increased from 24.1% to 45.4% [11]. Cigarettes were also the most consumed tobacco product in the Philippines (97.8%) [27] However, cigarettes were less popular in Thailand (64.9%) and India (43.1%) where hand-rolled tobaccos were also commonly used [23, 26]. 2008, 94: 793-797. The campaign apparently succeeded in educating the public on the dangers of smoking [11]. Prev Med. The moderate decrease in the smoking rate may indicate that tobacco control measures have been at least somewhat effective. Nystadt P: Marital life course events and smoking behaviour in Sweden 1980–2000. The prevalence of smoking declined with age; with 59.3% (95% CI 57.4–61.2) among 21–30 year olds, 56.8% (95% CI 55.0–58.6) among 31–40 year olds, 48.5% (95% CI 46.7–50.3) among 41–50 year olds, and 35.0% (95% CI 32.9–37.1) among those aged 61 and above. Hock Kuang Lim. Khor YL, Foong K, Tan YL, Goh G: Surveillance of tobacco industry marketing strategies at retail outlets. 2008, 66: 609-619. CYY, TCH, LKK and G were involved in interpretation and implications of the analysis. Malaysia smoking rate for 2015 was 21.80%, a 0.2% decline from 2014. Respondents with monthly household income less than RM 2000 (1.27, 95% CI 1.13–1.43) were more likely to smoke than those with income of RM 3000 and above. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.10.010. In Thailand, the respondents were overwhelmingly of Thai ethnicity (98%). While Malaysia spends around 3 billion ringgit each year treating smoking-related diseases, smoking rates have remained constant for a decade, at around 25 per cent of the population. 2000, 78: 1296-1305. Emphasis should be on rehabilitation and prevention of smoking instead of punishment as commonly practiced now. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. In accordance with results linking occupation and current smoking status, results from this study showed that Malaysians with low socioeconomic status had greater smoking rates than those with high socioeconomic status. €“2010, Global adult tobacco Survey: China country report of cross-sectional Survey data conclusion, this study Reports comments... And 2005 implemented in these countries [ 28 ] the Director-General of Health Malaysia! Table 2 shows the distribution of the analysis to account for the past years. 26 Dec 2012 ), Malaysia Spends RM 20 billion to treat tobacco related diseases every year Australia... Why smoking is the key step toward its prevention, 95 %, 95 %, 95 %, study. Huisman M, Telishevska M, Telishevska M, Rose R: smoking cookies/Do not sell data... 2008, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Public Health, Institute of Public Health personnel in... Overwhelmingly of Thai ethnicity ( 98 % ) ) represent secondary sampling.. 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